Cutting Speed, Depth of Cut, and Feed Motion in Machining Operations

Machining operations are the backbone of mechanical production techniques. Lots of kinds of commercial metal products are shaped by different machining operations. There are different types of machining operations and in general, technical parameters that affect the machining operations are the same. 

In this article, you can find some brief explanations of machining operation cutting conditions. 

Parameters of Machining Operations

Cutting motion of a CNC lathe(Image Source: Yena Engineering)

In most machining operations, the relative motion between the tooling and the work part is created by the machining contraption. So there are two kinds of motion in machining operations. These motions are classified as primary and feed motions. 

  • Primary Motion:  Primary motion is the motion of the related part of the machining operation where the cutting speed is calculated. The material removal rate is calculated with the use of cutting speed which is a very important parameter. 
  • Feed Motion: Feed motion is the secondary motion accomplished by another part of the machinery. 

These two motions can be done by both the cutting tool and the workpiece. For example, in turning operations, primary motion is done by the rotation workpiece, and cutting speed is calculated by the rotational velocity of the workpiece. Feed motion is linearly made by the cutting tool.

  • Cutting Speed: Actually, we explained the cutting speed which is the speed of primary motion in machining operations. 
  • Depth of Cut: In material removal processes, the depth of cut is a very important parameter. It affects the material removal rate directly. Depth of cut is actually how much the cutting tool penetrates the surface of the workpiece. 

Material Removal Rate in Machining Operations

Material removal rate directly affects the speed of the machining operations. In a serial production manner, it is a very important parameter. Also, the material removal rate is affecting the surface roughness and quality of the workpiece. All machining operation parameters must be calculated to obtain the required parameters from workpieces. 

In this formula, ‘V’ is the cutting speed of the primary motion in mm/s(in/min) unit. For example, in turning operations, the velocity of the outer parameter must be calculated. ‘f’ is the feed which has the unit of ‘mm(in.) and d is the depth of cut which has also a unit of mm(in.)

So the unit of the total material removal rate is the mm^3/min. 

You can use the calculator below to calculate the material removal rate. 


The use of the calculator is very simple. Just enter the required values of feed, cutting speed, and depth of cut. Then click on the ‘Calculate!’ button. If you want to make another calculation, just click on the ‘ Reset’ button then reenter the values. 


The general parameters of the cutting parameters in machining operations can be explained briefly like this. 

Mechanicalland does not accept any responsibility for calculations made by users in calculators. A good engineer must check calculations again and again.

You can find out much more calculators like this in Mechanicalland! Take a look at the other engineering calculators available in Mechanical Base!

Do not forget to leave your comments and questions below about the cutting parameters in machining operations!

Your precious feedbacks are very important to us.






Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *