Terms Starting with the Letter “A”

Absolute pressure: The pressure value which we measure by referencing the complete vacuum pressure. We are not adding atmospheric pressure in the absolute pressure measurements.

Air filter: In mechanical systems that are using air, air filters are filtering the air from possible pollutants which may be harmful for the system.

Air filters: Air filters are the systems to purify air with the special filters inside them. The most important applications of them is in the pneumatic systems and internal combustion engine systems. The contaminats in the air can be harmful for these types of engineering systems which we use air filters in them.

Air lubricator: In pneumatic systems, they are the systems that lubricates the air by pumping lubrication oils. So, the pneumatic system will work more smoothly.

Air receiver: They are the coıntainers of high pressure air that comes from the compressor. In pneumatic systems, we use the high pressure air to control the other systems.

Air relay: They are the relays in electronic systems of pneumatic systems that reduces the output pressure according to the particular input signal from the sensors.

Absolute zero: This is the temperature value which equals to the −273.15 °C or −459.67 °F. This is the minimum value that we can measure in the universe.

Absorption dryer: It is a chemical process where the water vapor is bond to the special chemical. So, we use these processes to eliminate the water vapor from the environment.

Accumulator: A special devices in hydraulics that accumulates the pressurized hydraulic fluid inside it. We generally find these systems in hydaraulic systems.

Actuator symbols: These are the symbols that we use in the technical drawings of hydraulic systems. They are symbols to define actuators in hydraulic system drawings.

Actuators: In hydraulic and robotic systems, they are the elements that responsible of the converting electric motor power to useful motions. Also in hydraulic systems, there are different actuators such as linear, rotary and valves.

Air amplifier: Air amplifiers are the machines that uses high pressure fluids to produce, low pressure and high speed fluid flows. In HVAC applications, they use to increase the air volume of th environment.

Air compressor: Air compresssors are the devices that compresses the air to increase the pressure and the temperature of the air. So, the internal energy of the air increases. We use air compressors in refrigerators and other thermodynamical systems.

Air lubricator: Air lubricators are the systems that provides lubrication oil into the air. They are very important systems in pneumatic applications.

Air receiver: Air receivers are the special compartments that the pressurized air from compressor is stored in this. We use these systems in pneumatic systems to provide an pressurized air compartments.

Air relay: In pneumatic control systems, air relays are controlling which direction and actuator that the air must go. They work according to the input commands by the operator or a software.

Air treatment: These are the general air applications in HVAC applications. They include the movement of air, cooling applications, pressurizing and increase the temperature of air for different kinds of systems.

AND gate: In electronic circuits, AND gates are the combination of two signals into the one signal on at the putput. AND gates are very important in hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

Annulus: This is a term that defines the ring shaped objets and structures.

ANSI: The acronym of this word is American National Standards Instutite which is a non-profit organization the administers the general standards of the United States. In engineering, we are using ANSI standards deeply.

ANSI Pipe Schedule: Amaerican Nation Standards Instutions’s standard nomşnal wall thicknesses of pipes. This standard is very important for hydraulics and pneumatics.

Anti-extrusion ring: In a pressurized environment, anti-extrusion rings prevent the O-ring extrusions. They are very important in hydraulics and pneumatics.

Anti-siphonage plug: This is a part that prevent the draining of the sanitary trap due to the differences of pressure of environment and the sanitary trap. This is a very important part of hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

Atmospheric pressure: The pressure value at the sea level and 0 Celsius degrees which equals to the 101.325 kPa or 760 cm of Hg.

Axial piston pump: These are the types of pumps that has pistons to increase the pressure of fluids. The general working principle is, there is a rotating excentrical systems that gives the rotational motion to the pistons. We use them in some of the hydraulic systems.

A/D converter: They ar ethe analog signal to digital signal converters in control systems for the processors. For example, voltage is converted to the digital input proportionally.

AC drives: They are the types of electrical systems that driven with alternative current.

Accelerometer: They are the sensors that measures the vibrations and accelerations of the systems.

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene: They are the common thermoplastic polymer that is used in the production of automotive body parts, wheel covers etx.

Active safety: They are the safety systems in automotive applications to prevenet ant accidensts.

Active suspension system: They are the active suspension systems in vehicles that stabilizes the vehicle movements becasue of the effects from the road. They generally activated with the vertical motions comes from tyres.

Adaptive controller: Adaptive control is the control method used by a controller which must adapt to a controlled system with parameters which vary, or are initially uncertain.

Adhesion utilization: They are the technical and mechanical systems that we utilize the adhesion features of the fluids.

Advanced cruise control: They are the high technology control systemss in vehicles that controls the speed of the vehicle according to the external objects or cars in road. There are lots of high technology sensors in these systems.

Advanced hybrid bus: They are the buses that uses technology of the combination of internal combustion engine and electrical motors. If we compare with the convecitonal buses, they are mor efficient.

Advanced hybrid truck: They are the trucks that uses technology of the combination of internal combustion engine and electrical motors. If we compare with the convecitonal trukcs, they are mor efficient.

Advanced PM motor system: In these motors, there are permanent magnetics at the rotor that makes them more efficient working. Their applications are very common in electric vehicles.

Aerodynamic drag: Negaitve drag force that affects the vehicles in the negahitve direction of th emotion because of the air pressure on the body.

Aerodynamic forces: Forces of a flowing fluid over a surface or body. They are components both horizontaly and verticaly. There are lots of studies to reduce the aerodynamic forces.

Aerodynamic noise: They are the noise of unsteady flows over the surfaces of bodies. To eiliminate these noises, it is very important to design bodeis have very good aerodynamişc structures to obtain steady flows.

Air brake dynamometers: These dynamometers are the systems to measure the engine power and torque at a specific speed in laboratories.

Air conditioning system: Systems that adjusts the temperature and humidity of the ambient air of different systems.

Air injection: Systems the inject air inside the engine cylinders to obtain better combustion.

Air intake control valve.: In carburator systems, they are the valves that controlled by the gas pedal to adjust the total air intake to the intake manifold.

Air management valves: They are the valves that manages intake and exhaust air and pressures in automotive systems.

Air suspension system: In vehicles, they are the suspension systems that uses air instead of springs.

Airborne tyre noise: This is the noise of the tyres of vehicles inside the vehicle cabin because of the air particles directed to the body from the tyres.

Air-pumping noise: In pneumatic systems, the noise that created by compressor and air relief valve to control the air inlets and outlets.

Alfa Romeo: Very famous Italian vehicle and car brand.

Alloy wheels: Types of wheels that manufacture from alumişnum alloys or steel alloys.

Almanac data: Annual publication of the weather forecasts, tidal tables and lunar cycles.

Alternative body architecture: This is a approach in the body design of vehicles in automotive.

ASF aluminium spaceframe: They are alumşnum automobile frames produced by the ASF company.

Aluminium: A lightweight slivery colored metal that has atomic number of 13 and atomic weight of 26.98.

Aluminium production process: Processes to produce aluminum metal from its ore.

Aluminium metal matrix composites: They are the types of composite materials that the matrix material is aluminum. These materials are very common in the automotive industry.

American Budd Company: The Budd Company was a 20th-century metal fabricator, a major supplier of body components to the automobile industry.

American Society of Automotive Engineers: SAE International is a global standards development and professional association with over 128000 engineers and technical experts in mobility engineering.

Annular type rubber coupling: Rubber couplings in automotive systems which have the shape of annular.

Antenna: Systems to sense the radio waves and send the information of this wave to the processors.

Anthropomorphic test devices: In the automotive body design, they are the test systems to test the possible car crashes and see th effects of these crashes on human body. Human boies are generally modeled as ballistic materials in ythese ATD devices.

Anti-lock braking system: They are th effective braking systems in automotive applications. They are the braking systems thet prevents the locing of the steering wheels while you are braking.

Anti-roll bars: They are the bars in the automotive suspension systems that prevents the rolling of the automobile in the fast cornering and road irreegularities.

APINEX software: This is a simulation software before buildings the prototype applications. APINEX is very common in the automotive industry.

Aquaplaning: This is a phenomenon in the driving watery days where a fluid formation beneath the wheels because of the high speed. And steering does not work. It is a dangerous thing that we can avoid it by dricing slowly in rainy days.

Ariadne’s Clew algorithm: The Ariadne’s clew algorithm tries to do both at the same time: a sub-algorithm called explore collects information about the free space with increasingly ne resolution, while, in parallel, an algorithm called search opportunistically checks whether the target can be reached.

Articulation index: This is the speech index in different frequency bands. It gives idea about how much the sound of speaker understood by a person.

Aston Martin Vanquish: This is a interior car design by Aston Martin that privdes very good balance between itimacy and comfort.

Asynchronous/a.c. dynamometers: They aret he systmes that testing the engine performance by mimicing the engine load like powring a real vehicles. They are very common in the test laboratuvaries of automotive industries.

ATLANTIS architectures: The A Three-Layer Architecture for Navigating Through Intricate Situations (ATLANTIS) is a hybrid reactive/deliberative robot architecture developed by Erann Gat at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Audi: A german luxury car brand.

Augmented finite state machine: They are the finite state machines that consist of alarm clocks, registers, a combinatorial network, and regular finite state machine.

Autocorrelation function: They are the functions that show the relation between the preceding data points and the other data points in time series.

Automated manual transmission: They are the manual transmissions but the clutch work made by a computer program. Unlike the old times, there is no any mechanical link betwen the transmission stick and the transmission itself.

Automatic braking: Autonomuos braking system that take into action automatically when there is a possible collison danger. They are common in the autopilots and new cars.

Automatic system adjustment: Automated systems in automotive applications where automatic adjustments takes place in the different systems.

Automatic transmission control: They are the control units that control the gears according to the data from the various sensors for the optimum shift quality.

Automatic transmission control unit: They are the electronic circuits and processing unit that controls the automatic transmission gear shifts according ro the different data from the sensors.

Automatic transmission: Types of transmission system that decides the gear shifts automatically.

Autonomous GPS positioning: In autonomous driving systems, they are the electronişc circuit that uses the GPS data fro position ing the car.

Autonomous navigation systems: Navigation systems in cars that uses autonomous GPS positioning system that is used in the car systems.

Auxiliary vehicle systems: Vehicle auxiliary equipment means any manual, mechanical, and electrical device powered by the engine of the motor vehicle to which it is mounted, attached, or utilized from or by a separate engine or motor,that enables the motor vehicle or such devices to function, and includes, without limitation, trimmers, saws, etc.

Axle cornering characteristics: The general cornering characteristics that they show in the cornering of the vehicles.

Axle differential lock: They are the axle lock systems to provide 100% of torque for all wheels for better traction in cornering. Also, wheels can rotate in different speed with this axle locking system.

Axle lock: Systems in automobiles to adjust the powr distribution between the wheels. For example in all wheel drive system, if you lock the rear axles, the vehicle will move with the front axles and wheels.