Metals are maybe one of the most important manufacturing materials in engineering or industry. They are commonly used in the production of a wide variety of products. Metal forming processes is a very important step in the production of various metal parts for various applications. Here you can find informations about;
Table of Contents ;
- General expression of the metal forming processes,
- Important parameters in general metal forming applications,
- Classification and explanations of these metal forming types.
The Importance Of Metal Forming Processes
Metal forming processes depends on the principle of the deformation of metals. Various kinds of forces, stresses, or other kinds of external effects are applied to starting forms of metal parts to obtain deformed and shaped useful metal parts.
You might know what deformation means in classical mechanics. Almost every material has a specific stress-strain graph in different loading conditions such as compression, tension, or bending.
In most metal forming applications, compressive forces are emergent. So, nearly every metal has a specific stress-strain graph in compression application on them.
Yield Strength In Metal Working
These graphs include very important information related to the metal forming processes. This information is the yield strength. As you know from classical mechanics, plastic deformation starts after the stress values above the yield strength. So, the deformation characteristics of a metal forming process depend on the yield strength value of the metal that is used. Low yield strength values from metal parts are desired in metal forming processes. Force and stress applications decrease with the low yield strength values.
Ductility In Metal Forming Processes
Ductility is also a very important material characteristic for a good metal forming process. Ductile materials are more tend to be deformed compared with brittle materials. So, ductility is a preferred metal material property in metal forming processes. If the ductility of a metal increases, forming this metal will be much easier.
Ductility and the yield strength of the metal part can be manipulated with the process temperature of the metal forming. With the increasing temperature, ductility increases, and the yield strength decreases. Because of that, heat application in metal forming processes is very common.
Classification If The Metal Forming Processes
Metal forming processes are divided into two categories; Bulk deformation and Sheet metalworking. This classification is made in terms of the area per volume of the metal part that is being worked.
As you understand from the name that the work ‘bulk’ refers to the metal parts that area per volume is small. There are various kinds of processes available in bulk deformation.
- Metal Extrusion: Metal extrusion processes are very common in the metal industry. There is a small die opening that molten or semi-molten metal is forced through it. Metal takes the shape of the die opening.
- Metal Drawing: In this metal forming process, relatively thick metal rods or wires are pulled through a die opening to make these metal parts thinner.
- Metal Rolling: Metal plates or slabs are forced through sets of rollers to make these plates or slabs in the thicknesses of these openings between rollers.
- Metal Forging: There are two opposing dies in metal forging that one of these dies is moving. Metal squeezed between these dies to take the shape of the die. Metal forging processes are applied in high temperatures generally.
Again you understand from the name, the term ‘sheet’ is used for the metal parts that area per volume values are high. Mechanical presses are generally used in sheet metalworking processes. Because of this reason, these processes are also called press-working. Stamping is another term that used for the produced metal parts in sheet metalworking processes. There are a bunch of metal forming and working processes developed.
- Deep Drawing: Cup-shaped metal products are produced with deep drawing methods. A mechanical punch presses upon metal sheets which are fixed from blank-holders. Press apply a force upon this fixed metal sheet, and the metal sheet takes the shape of the die that is fixed upon it.
- Metal Bending: Metal bending is a very basic process that a mechanical punch is pressed upon a metal sheet. And metal sheet takes the shape of the die.
- Metal Shearing: Actually, it is not a metal forming process. This is a process that the metal sheets are cut into pieces. The cutting operation is done between the edges of a mechanical punch and a die.
This is the general information about the metal forming processes.
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