General Expression Of The Metal Rolling Processes

General Expression Of The Metal Rolling Processes

Metalworking or metal forming processes are very important aspects of the manufacturing of the metal part industry. One of these processes is the metal rolling process. In rolling processes, different kinds of metal shapes are produced. Here, we explain the general process characteristics of metal rolling processes and classifications, etc. 

Metal Rolling Process

Metal rolling is a metal forming technology that starting metal part is shaped or the thickness of that metal is reduced with the action of two or more opposing roll sets. These rolls apply pushing and compression force on the thicker metal to obtain more thin metal parts. 

There are two types of metal rolling processes;

  • Flat Rolling Processes: In flat metal rolling processes, the starting metal workpiece’s thickness is reduced with the action of rolls. The produced thinner metal part can be used in subsequent metal forming processes. 
  • Shape Rolling Processes: In shape rolling of metal workpieces, shaped and useful cross-sections are obtained such as I-beams, rails, etc. The output of these processes is generally product. 

Temperature Of The Metal Rolling Processes

Hot metal rolling example(Image

Like in the other metalworking processes, application temperature in metal rolling processes is a very important process parameter. Rolling processes can be applied in very high temperatures which are called hot rolling. If the rolling processes are performed at room temperatures, it is called cold rolling. The rolling processes that are performed in intermediate temperatures are called warm rolling. 

The application temperature of the metal rolling processes is very important. With the increasing temperature, the formability of metal increases, which also means metal parts can be formed more extensively. But in cold rolling processes, the formability of metal is limited because of the strain hardening of metal parts.  

The strength of the cold-rolled parts is better than the hot-rolled metal parts because of the strain hardening phenomena. But the isotropy of the hot-rolled products is better.  

Dimensional accuracies of cold rolling processes better than the hot rolling processes.

Because of these facts, different types of metal parts and starting workpieces are rolled in hot and cold rolling processes.

Classification Of Starting Metal Workpieces In Metal Rolling

Metal rolling illustration(Image

In general, the starting forms of metal workpieces in metal rolling processes are classified into three categories; 

  • Bloom: Bloom is the thickest type of these three types of metal workpieces. They are starting a bulk metal workpiece that has 150×150 mm of cross-sections. 
  • Slab: Slab is rolled from blooms and they can be used in subsequent metal rolling or forming processes. 250×40 mm of the cross-section can be a good example for slabs. You can understand from these dimensions, the bloom is rolled to a thinner shape. 
  • Billet: Billet is another rolled subsequent bulk metal workpiece that has 40 mm of rectangular cross-section. 

The types of final products that are produced from these bulk metal workpieces change. Slabs are rolled into plates and strips and these plates and strips can be rolled into more thin products such as metal sheets. 

Heavy structural final products are generally produced with the hot rolling processes. 


This can be a summarized as information about the general characteristics of metal rolling processes. 

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